FreeBSD, FreeNAS

How to use GPT labels on FreeNAS – Part 1

I’ve recently been on a mission to make FreeNAS use GPT labels. By default, FreeNAS uses the GPT GUID format which makes it difficult to track down a drive in the event of a failure.

For example, the zpool status of a default FreeNAS setup will look something similar to:

[root@freenas] ~# zpool status tank
  pool: tank
 state: ONLINE
  scan: none requested

	NAME                                            STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
	tank                                            ONLINE       0     0     0
	  mirror-0                                      ONLINE       0     0     0
	    gptid/c16b5f1a-2abf-11e5-874b-000c29f1f845  ONLINE       0     0     0
	    gptid/c181b4bb-2abf-11e5-874b-000c29f1f845  ONLINE       0     0     0

errors: No known data errors

Unfortunately, this only tells you the GUID of the disk which is not available in the UI at all. Therefore, in the event of a failure, you’ll have to poke around to pinpoint which disk has failed.

Let’s fix that… Continue reading


Multiple DNS Search Suffixes in dhcpd.conf

So this a quick post because I spent a few hours resolving this issue and wanted to share. The DHCP option domain-search (code 119) is used to specify the DNS domain search list (i.e. “search” in /etc/resolv.conf) but it’s not clearly stated the format for dhcpd.conf. After trying many different combinations I finally nailed it down:

subnet netmask {
    option domain-name "";
    option domain-search "", "", "";
    option domain-name-servers;
    option routers;

So the format is: option domain-search “SUFFIX 1”, “SUFFIX 2”, …, “SUFFIX N”;

–The IT Department


OpenWRT + OpenVPN + Routed LANs

So I’ve been using OpenVPN for a while now in a “point-to-point” (i.e. road-warrior) fashion. On the server I’m running OpenVPN on CentOS 5.3 using client certificate authentication + TLS-AUTH. I have 2 clients connecting, 1 client (me) connects from either a Windows host (OpenVPN GUI) or a Mac host (Tunnelblick). The other client connects from a Linux host (OpenVPN NetworkManager plugin).

Now whenever I connect, it’s from home – either I’m on my laptop or I’m on my mini. I have a Linksys WRT54GL running OpenWRT as my home router. Now I’ve configured the OpenWRT client in a bridged-fashion before but I wasn’t too fond of it since it doesn’t allow other clients to connect if they’re on a different network than the server without setting up another server instance.

So I set out today to figure out how to configure the routed vpn tunnel to allow the private networks on either side of the tunnel to be able to communicate with each other.

I found this post on the OpenWRT forums describing the same setup but it had no solution. I believe the problem was trying to manipulate the routing tables on the individual hosts directly when you actually need some extra routing configuration in OpenVPN. You have to use the client-config-dir option and the iroute option so OpenVPN can correctly route between the 2 LANs.

On the server we have the following setup:


[root@server openvpn]# cat /etc/openvpn/server.conf
port 1194
proto udp
dev tun
ca /etc/openvpn/ca.crt
cert /etc/openvpn/server.crt
key /etc/openvpn/server.key
dh /etc/openvpn/dh2048.pem
tls-auth /etc/openvpn/ta.key 0
client-config-dir /etc/openvpn/clients
keepalive 10 60

[root@server openvpn]# cat /etc/openvpn/clients/client1
push “route”

An explanation of the /etc/openvpn/clients/client1 config:

The ‘client1’ name comes from the common name of the certificate which the client is connecting with. For example, in my actual setup my common name is my full name so the client config file is /etc/openvpn/clients/FirstName_LastName

  • the ‘iroute’ option tells the server the network should be routed through ‘client1’
  • the ‘push’ option tells client1 the network is routed through the vpn tunnel
  • the ‘ifconfig-push’ option assigns client1 the vpn ip routed through

On the client we have the following setup:


[root@client openvpn]# cat /etc/openvpn/server.conf
dev tun
proto udp
remote 1194
ca /etc/openvpn/ca.crt
cert /etc/openvpn/client1.crt
key /etc/openvpn/client1.key
tls-auth /etc/openvpn/ta.key 1

After starting openvpn on the two hosts, there should be additional route entries similar to the following on the client:

[root@client openvpn]# route add -net netmask dev tun0
[root@client openvpn]# route add -net netmask gw dev tun0

And on the server:

[root@server openvpn]# route add -net netmask dev tun0
[root@server openvpn]# route add -net netmask gw dev tun0

Now you may have noticed my OpenVPN server’s internal IP address is It’s not the border router for the 10.0.0/24 network – is (i.e. it’s the default gateway on the 10.0.0/24 network). It’s a FreeBSD router so simply adding a route entry for 192.168.1/24 via allows the server-side LAN to fully communicate with client-side LAN:

[root@bsd-rtr ~]# route add -net 192.168.1/24

One last thing is to add a few firewall rules on each vpn end point to allow proper communication over the tunnel:

[root@client openvpn]# iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s -d -j SNAT –to-source
[root@client openvpn]# iptables -A FORWARD -i eth0 -o tun0 -s -d -j ACCEPT
[root@client openvpn]# iptables -A FORWARD -i tun0 -o eth0 -s -d -j ACCEPT

[root@server openvpn]# iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s -d -j SNAT –to-source
[root@server openvpn]# iptables -A FORWARD -i eth0 -o tun0 -s -d -j ACCEPT
[root@server openvpn]# iptables -A FORWARD -i tun0 -o eth0 -s -d -j ACCEPT

If you’ve reached this point and everything has made sense so far, you should be able to successfully ping any host on the network from the network and vice-versa. If not, leave a comment and I’ll try to help you out.

–The IT Department


CentOS 5.2 + Qt 4.5 + FcFreeTypeQueryFace

So with all the buzz around the new release of Qt 4.5, you may be like me and have been desperately wanting to give it a whirl. Has this happened to you yet?

/opt/qtsdk-2009.01/qt/lib/ undefined reference to `FcFreeTypeQueryFace'
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status

Someone’s got some ‘splainin to do. Lucky for you, that’s me. Basically, the people at fontconfig did not add this API call until 2.4.2. From fontconfig’s ChangeLog 2.4.2:

commit 72ffe6536a6825a32095c8185aff836a12326ac5
Author: Keith Packard 
Date:   Sat Dec 2 13:22:27 2006 -0800

    Add FcFreeTypeQueryFace external API. Bug #7311.
    Expose ability to build an FcPattern directly from an FT_Face
    object.            |    4 ++--
 doc/fcfreetype.fncs     |   17 +++++++++++++++-
 fontconfig/fcfreetype.h |    6 ++++++
 src/fcfreetype.c        |   50 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++---------------------
 4 files changed, 52 insertions(+), 25 deletions(-)

Problem is for us CentOS 5.2 users, we’re given a version 2.4.1-7 from “upstream” 😦 It’s not a big deal, we can just compile fontconfig from source … wait, did I just say compile? No worries, it’s easy.

1. Compile fontconfig 2.4.2 from source

Note: Throughout this step, I used fontconfig 2.4.2 since this is the minimum required version, but I tested this with the latest version 2.6.0 so just replace the version numbers accordingly if you choose to use 2.6.0.

[user@localhost ~]$ cd /usr/src
[user@localhost /usr/src]$ wget
[user@localhost /usr/src]$ tar -zxf fontconfig-2.4.2.tar.gz
[user@localhost /usr/src]$ cd fontconfig-2.4.2
[user@localhost /usr/src/fontconfig-2.4.2]$ ./configure --prefix=/opt/fontconfig-2.4.2
... (note: 'configure' output omitted for brevity) ...
[user@localhost /usr/src/fontconfig-2.4.2]$ make
... (note: 'make' output omitted for brevity) ...
[user@localhost /usr/src/fontconfig-2.4.2]$ make install
... (note: 'make install' output omitted for brevity) ...

Note: I chose to install into /opt/fontconfig-2.4.2 since I like keeping my “deviations” from upstream organized.

2. Add the fontconfig library location to your project’s .pro file

LIBS += -L/opt/fontconfig-2.4.2/lib

3. Recompile and that’s it! 😎

Now I can’t guarantee you will not have any ‘make’ errors due to library dependencies but I’m pretty sure that if you got as far as you did to receive this error, you will have every *-devel package needed by fontconfig already installed on your system.

Zend Framework

Zend Framework 1.7 + Zend Studio 6.1 + PHPUnit

With the new release of Zend Framework 1.7 , like many others, I was eager to download it and give it a whirl. Now I’m currently developing a ZF web app and we’re still in the early stages so I upgraded our trunk version of ZF to 1.7 and re-ran all my PHPUnit test cases using Zend Studio. To no suprise there was a slight problem:

Debug Error: /foo/library/Zend/Test/PHPUnit/ControllerTestCase.php line 1099 – Call to undefined method FooControllerTest::incrementAssertionCounter()

Now I did manage to track down exactly what the issue is. I won’t go into details about how but I’ll just say this: Zend Debugger is a god send for debugging PHP applications (and in this case a PHP test suite).

Anywho, basically with the release of ZF 1.7, Zend_Test_PHPUnit_ControllerTestCase::_incrementAssertionCounter() was added and is called by every Zend_Test_PHPUnit_ControllerTestCase::assertBlah(…) function. It simply does a PHPUnit version check and loops through to PHPUnit and calls either PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase::incrementAssertionCounter() if your PHPUnit version < 3.3.0 or PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase::addToAssertionCounter(1) if your PHPUnit version >= 3.3.0.

The problem is this, PHPUnit did not add PHPUnit_Framework_TestCase::incrementAssertionCounter() until version 3.3.0. Hence if you have a version of PHPUnit < 3.3.0, ZF 1.7 is not compatible 😦 This is true for all Zend Studio 6.1 users as it ships with PHPUnit v3.2.18. Why did the ZF devs not add a check to make sure the version was above 3.3.0 is beyond me. This breaks ZF 1.7 backwards compatibility with ZF 1.6 as this “increment/add to assertion counter” was not even present in ZF 1.6.

Now here’s the temporary solution: Since you can’t change the PHPUnit location in Zend Studio, you have to patch your Zend Studio install with an updated PHPUnit library. At the time of this writing the latest was 3.3.4. Grab it from PEAR and do the following:

  1. Navigate to your ${ZEND_STUDIO_INSTALL_DIR}/plugins/com.zend.php.phpunit_6.1.0.v20080907/resources/library directory.
  2. Rename PHPUnit to PHPUnit-3.2.18
  3. Move the PHPUnit v3.3.4 folder you got from PEAR into the same directory and make sure it’s named PHPUnit

Now your PHPUnit test cases should happily run in Zend Studio 😀

I’m going to take this issue up with the ZF devs and hopefully they’ll be a bugfix in 1.7.1 but who knows. Just wanted to help anyone who may be experiencing the same problem.